Periodontal Disease. All you need to know.

Many people worry about gum and periodontal disease, the two often get confused so this blog post is dedicated to helping you understand the differences between gum and periodontal disease as well as how to treat both… And, probably most importantly, how to prevent both!

Statistics for Periodontal Disease

  • 45% population have chronic periodontal disease
  • 70.1% of adults over 65 have gingivitis  (2010 estimates from the USA)

These statistics show the prevalence of periodontal and gingival disease. These people are all at risk of developing additional systemic health problems if their oral health problems are not kept under control.

Health issues associated with poor Dental Health

There are a variety of systemic illnesses and oral health (OH) links, including but not limited to:

  • Diabetes and OHRead research which shows the link between persistent poor glycaemic control and the incidence of gingivitis , periodontitis and alveolar bone loss.
  • High Blood Pressure and OHfind out more
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome and OHRead research which shows that the microbiom is a potential source of inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome
  • Autoimmune diseases and OHRead research which shows that patients with higher plaque index are more likely to develop autoimmune diseases in 30 years.
  • Possible Erectile Dysfunction Syndrome Read research which shows that oral health could be considered a risk factor for erectile dysfunction
  • Gum disease and heart palpitations find out more

How do you know if you have gum disease? 

Gingivitis is classified as a superficial infection of the gums, bleeding whilst brushing is usually a warning sign and if left untreated it can lead to more serious periodontitis.

Symptoms of gum disease (gingivitis) include:

  • Reddening of the gums.
  • Puffy gums.
  • Gums which lead either spontaneously or during brushing.
  • Buildup of plaque in between teeth into sticky, hard tartar.
inflamed gums
inflamed gums caused by a buildup of tartar

How do you know if you have periodontal disease?

Periodontal disease (periodontitis) is a profound inflammation of the gum and other tissues. It can lead to tooth loss and may affect general health, particularly cardiovascular health. It also has health risks for people prone to diabetes or for pregnant women.

Symptoms of periodontal disease include::

  • Gums that bleed during or after brushing.
  • Continuous bad breath which cannot be alleviated by either brushing or mouthwash.
  • Gum recession (showing more tooth as the gums pull away).
  • The pockets around the teeth which may have a tendency to pack with food and be difficult to clean.
  • Drifting or loose teeth.

How can periodontal disease be fixed? 

There are a few treatments to fix periodontal disease, depending on how far the disease has advanced.

Treatment in the Early Stages

Initially your dentist or periodontist may carry out the nonsurgical treatments, this involves a root planing procedure. This is where the tartar that has hardened on your tooth is scraped away beneath the gum line. It can often take a few visits to completely remove and clean the tooth.

After the tartar has been scraped away the soft tissue can then reattach and completely heal after a few weeks.

Very often a local anaesthetic is used to make the treatment comfortable.

Treatment in More Advanced Stages

As periodontal disease progresses it becomes more difficult to treat and often surgical procedures are required. These can include:

  • Gum Grafts. Very often the gum will have receded with advanced periodontal disease, grafts can be taken from other areas of your mouth (usually the palate) and grafted to rebuild the gum that has been lost. This can help reduce sensitivity around any exposed roots.
  • Bone grafting. In conjunction with the gum grafting bone grafting can help to restore infected tissue. A synthetic or natural bone graft will be used to replace lost bone giving the soft tissue a structure on which to reattach and re-grow.
  • Pocket reduction. This occurs when the plaque and bacteria pack themselves down next to the tooth to create a large pocket where the soft tissue is not attached. Pocket reduction treatments involve a periodontist opening a small flap of soft tissue providing access to the underlying tooth. The tooth can then have any infected tissue remove, the area can then be left to heal.

Is periodontal disease reversible

Yes, although if it is left completely untreated it will progress and result in tooth loss. The more periodontal disease is left to progress without treatment the more difficult it is to treat and a more difficult it is to save teeth, bone and gum. The key is to get treatment under way as soon as the disease is detected.

What other problems can periodontal disease cause? 

  • Altered taste. The bacteria in the mouth can give a nasty taste which doesn’t go away.
  • Bad breath even after brushing. This is caused by the bacteria and infection involved.
  • Tooth loss; gaps develop, loose teeth
  • Reduced enjoyment of food, caused by mobile teeth and pain.
  • Limited diet as the teeth are not able to chew food enough.
  • Reduced nutrition (meats/fibre foods that need chewing) 

This then all results in:

  • Altering stomach acids and the ability to digest food
  • A lack of confidence due to the bad taste, bad smell and inability to eat.

What happens if periodontal disease is not treated?

  • It can become a factor in other long term dental and health problems 
  • Treatment can be costly if left until late

Other factors to consider

if you have periodontal disease, all is not lost. It can be managed by kickstarting gums back into health using holistic/conservative management techniques. Initially there may be multiple visits and the cost of treatment can be broken down.

If you are concerned about gum disease or periodontal disease and would like a professional opinion about the treatments available, please do get in touch.

This entry was posted in Dental health advice and tagged by Dr Zankruti Patel. Bookmark the permalink.

About Dr Zankruti Patel

Zankruti graduated in 2004 from the University of Birmingham. She has worked in the UK for 8 years completing post graduate certificate courses in preventative, restorative and aesthetic dentistry including a 2 year course in implantology with FAPI university in Brazil. She is a certified clinician for laser dentistry, Invisalign, CFast, Digital Smile Design, Wrinkle relaxant treatment and dermal fillers, and has an interest in sleep dentistry and TMJ pain. She also holds an MBA which she completed whilst living in Shanghai.

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